Sunday, 27 September 2015

(58) Homo naledi: Antedating Human Religion

Basic Dimension 

Number Archive

(190) Australopithecus interbred with Homo sapiens? 

[Anyway, they definitely are half Australopithecus, which dates from 2.5 - 7 million years ago. This means half their genes are old and half are young. So, they still might have been evolved in the developmental stage of Rebirth. They likely survived for millions of years. Just learned Hominin subspecies do not change much in evolution after they are established.]

An exhaustive search by a professional caving team and researchers has failed to find any other plausible access points into the Dinaledi Chamber, and there is no evidence to suggest that an older, now sealed, entrance to the chamber ever existed. Furthermore, detailed surface mapping of the landscape overlying the Rising Star cave system (Figure 2A) illustrates that no large flowstone-filled fractures occur in the region above the Dinaledi Chamber.

See also:

(77) Homo naledi from rebirth to reincarnation

Altering the religious evolution of humankind

Regarding the evolution of human religion we distinguished three abstractions of eternal life of increasing difficulty which we linked to brain size:

(mya: million years ago)

1: Genetic immortality by inbreeding and incest (Homininae, 7-2 mya, 400 cc)
2: Reincarnation into the (earthly) universe (Homo erectus, 2 mya, 900 cc)
3: Reincarnation into the parallel universe (Homo sapiens, 0.2 mya, 1450 cc)

But Professor Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, made a series of amazing discoveries which force us to involve Australopithecus more into the religious development of humankind. 

A transitional form might have existed between the apelike Australopithecus (Homininae) and the humanlike Homo erectus. That would be amazing and Lee Berger really reversed the tree of human development.

Berger, or better his 15 year old son first discovered Australopithecus Sediba (1.78-1.95 mya; adult size 422 cc). And later Berger discovered Homo naledi (2 mya; 500 cc). Homo naledi is our biggest interest because this species already might have taken the barrier from genetic immortality to reincarnation into the (earthly) universe. 

Of course we already placed the discovery of reincarnation at 2 mya but for brain size 900cc. But now we are in the astonishing situation 500 cc already might be sufficient for the intellectual breakthrough to reincarnation. But then one may ask the question if 400 cc eventually would be sufficient too. Might chimpanzees and bonobos also believe in reincarnation? That's the big question in sexual religion.

So we change our model from:

1: Genetic immortality by inbreeding and incest (Homininae, 7-2 mya, 400 cc)
2: Reincarnation into the (earthly) universe (Homo erectus, 2 mya, 900 cc)
3: Reincarnation into the parallel universe (Homo sapiens, 0.2 mya, 1450 cc)


1: Genetic immortality by inbreeding and incest (Homininae, 7- 4 mya, 400 cc)
2: Reincarnation into the (earthly) universe (Australopithecus (Homininae) x Homo erectus, 2 mya, 500 cc)
3: Reincarnation into the (earthly) universe (Homo erectus, 2 mya, 900 cc)
4: Reincarnation into the parallel universe (Homo sapiens, 0.2 mya, 1450 cc)

Furthermore it behooves us modesty and we lead you straight to the important information:

The revolution in paleontology 2008

Malapa Cave: Australopithecus sediba's place of discovery ...,_Cradle_of_Humankind

Malapa is a fossil-bearing cave located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) Northeast of the well known South African hominid-bearing sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) North-Northwest of the City of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is situated within the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site.

In March 2008, Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, undertook an exploration project in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage site outside of Johannesburg, in order to map the known caves identified by him and his colleagues over the past several decades, and to place known fossil sites onto Google Earth so that information could be shared with colleagues.[1]

By July 2008, the pattern of cave distribution seen on Google Earth by Berger as well as the recognition of what these deposits looked like from satellites and significant amounts of searching on the ground had led Berger to discover almost 500 caves that scientists had not plotted or identified previously.[1]

In late July, Prof. Berger noted in Google Earth a series of caves running along a fault that pointed to a blank area in the region, an area that appeared to have clusters of trees that typically marked cave deposits.[1

On 15 August, Prof. Berger returned to the site with his post-doctoral student, Dr. Job Kibii and his 9 year old son Matthew. Within minutes, Matthew had discovered the first remains of early human ancestors - a clavicle, or collar bone. On the opposite side of the block Prof. Berger quickly discovered a jawbone with a canine tooth of a hominid. The find would soon be prepared and identified as part of a partial skeleton of a juvenile hominid, around 9 – 13 years of age.[3]

The two skeletons were called Austalopithecus Sediba.

Australopithecus Sediba:
1.78-1.95 mya.
Boy 1.27 cm; 12 years old; (420cc; adult size 422 cc).
Adult female.

Sediba is a hybrid between Australopithecus africanus (Lucy; 3.2 mya), 
Homo habilis (2.2 mya; Leakey 1959)(Ethiopia March 2015, Oldest Hominin 2.8 mya) and Homo erectus (1.6 mya, Leakey, Turkana boy).

Rising Star Cave

Homo naledi (560 cc m; 465 cc fm; 2 mya)

Berger, L. R. et al. 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife: 2015;4:e09560, DOI 

H. naledi presents yet a different combination of traits. This species combines a humanlike body size and stature with an australopith-sized brain; features of the shoulder and hand apparently well-suited for climbing with humanlike hand and wrist adaptations for manipulation; australopith-like hip mechanics with humanlike terrestrial adaptations of the foot and lower limb; small dentition with primitive dental proportions.

Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa    => PDF

Human evolution:
The many mysteries of Homo naledi
 and PDF.

'The same schizoid pattern was popping up at the other tables. A fully modern hand sported wackily curved fingers, fit for a creature climbing trees. The shoulders were apish too, and the widely flaring blades of the pelvis were as primitive as Lucy’s—but the bottom of the same pelvis looked like a modern human’s. The leg bones started out shaped like an australopithecine’s but gathered modernity as they descended toward the ground. The feet were virtually indistinguishable from our own.'

'But then there was the head. Four partial skulls had been found—two were likely male, two female. In their general morphology they clearly looked advanced enough to be called Homo. But the braincases were tiny—a mere 560 cubic centimeters for the males and 465 for the females, far less than H. erectus’s average of 900 cubic centimeters, and well under half the size of our own. A large brain is the sine qua non of humanness, the hallmark of a species that has evolved to live by its wits. These were not human beings. These were pinheads, with some humanlike body parts.'

'In some ways the new hominin from Rising Star was even closer to modern humans than Homo erectus is. To Berger and his team, it clearly belonged in the Homo genus, but it was unlike any other member. They had no choice but to name a new species. They called it Homo naledi (pronounced na-LED-ee), tipping a hat to the cave where the bones had been found: In the local Sotho language, naledi means “star.”'

'Having exhausted all other explanations, Berger and his team were stuck with the improbable conclusion that bodies of H. naledi were deliberately put there, by other H. naledi. Until now only Homo sapiens, and possibly some archaic humans such as the Neanderthals, are known to have treated their dead in such a ritualized manner. The researchers don’t argue that these much more primitive hominins navigated Superman’s Crawl and the harrowing shark-mouth chute while dragging corpses behind them—that would go beyond improbable to incredible. Maybe back then Superman’s Crawl was wide enough to be walkable, and maybe the hominins simply dropped their burden into the chute without climbing down themselves. Over time the growing pile of bones might have slowly tumbled into the neighboring chamber.'



Homo naledi from rebirth to reincarnation:

1: It is completely dark in the Rising Star Cave and Homo naledi had no light. Dinaledi chamber is about 100 meters away from the entrance and everything was completely dark and invisible.
2: Homo naledi probably thought the deep chute to Dinaledi chamber was the gate to the underworld but he probably never went all the way down.
3: Earlier, he figured out that all new life sprang from the soil of the underworld.
4: He threw all dead bodies into the chute of the underworld to renew their bodies for rebirth in the upperworld. It was the same as burials in the ground but better without worms and insects.
5: In Dinaledi chamber he took renewal for granted, since he was not able to check the degree of decomposition of the bodies. Remember the body of Jesus was gone also after rebirth.
6: Apparently, he expected the deceased to be reborn as offspring within their own renewed bodies and without reincarnation into other bodies.
7: Hence, he needed no auxiliary hypothesis of body and soul.
8: Because there was not the slightest check on reality, Dinaledi chamber was as Heaven of the parallel universe. Jesus and Heaven make the Rising Star Cave a perfect example of human religion.
9: Two million years was Homo naledi the Christians ahead.
10: This all means the Rising Star Cave gives us an extremely rare example of religion in human prehistory and offers a glimpse of the state of the art of the religion of Australopithecus.
11: This means, there might not be found another Dinaledi chamber.

The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa


New ages for flowstone, sediments and fossil bones from the Dinaledi Chamber are presented. We combined optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments with U-Th and palaeomagnetic analyses of flowstones to establish that all sediments containing Homo naledi fossils can be allocated to a single stratigraphic entity (sub-unit 3b), interpreted to be deposited between 236 ka and 414 ka. This result has been confirmed independently by dating three H. naledi teeth with combined U-series and electron spin resonance (US-ESR) dating. Two dating scenarios for the fossils were tested by varying the assumed levels of 222Rn loss in the encasing sediments: a maximum age scenario provides an average age for the two least altered fossil teeth of 253 +82/–70 ka, whilst a minimum age scenario yields an average age of 200 +70/–61 ka. We consider the maximum age scenario to more closely reflect conditions in the cave, and therefore, the true age of the fossils. By combining the US-ESR maximum age estimate obtained from the teeth, with the U-Th age for the oldest flowstone overlying Homo naledi fossils, we have constrained the depositional age of Homo naledi to a period between 236 ka and 335 ka. These age results demonstrate that a morphologically primitive hominin, Homo naledi, survived into the later parts of the Pleistocene in Africa, and indicate a much younger age for the Homo naledi fossils than have previously been hypothesized based on their morphology.

How do you figure out a fossil’s age? (By John Hawks)

We applied six different methods. The most valuable of these were electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating. ESR relies on the fact that teeth contain tiny crystals, and the electron energy in these crystals is affected by natural radiation in the ground over long periods of time after fossils are buried. U-Th relies on the fact that water drips into caves and forms layers of calcite, which contain traces of uranium. The radioactive fraction of uranium decays into thorium slowly over time. So the proportion of thorium compared to uranium gives an estimate of the time since the calcite layers formed. One of these calcite deposits, called a flowstone, formed above the H. naledi fossils in the Dinaledi Chamber. That flowstone helps to establish the minimum age: the fossils must be older than the flowstone above them.



This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Attibution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence.


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