Friday, 2 June 2017

(201) Homo naledi's brilliant orange-seized brains

Basic Dimension 

Number Archive

In the beginning of the discovery of Homo naledi (2.3 Ma - 335 ka; 550cc) we thought they were dumb people. They had a brain as big as an orange and we thought the volume of the brain is the best indicator of handling complexity. But we forgot that our extravagant brain is fooling us with all kinds of spurious mental connections. And this was one of them.

It is how to use your brain to show you have brains. Then Homo naledi could show more brains with less brain. Showing brains by Homo naledi (rebirth) is to operate more rationally than Homo erectus (reincarnation), since rebirth is more rational than reincarnation, which needs more magical thinking (a soul). 

And guess what, the hypothesis of 'rebirth' is falsified when there are still human remains left in the cave after a number of years. This might be the end conclusion of Homo naledi about rebirth. But 'reincarnation' cannot be falsified. And both rebirth and reincarnation cannot be confirmed, though.

The overall trend is the more intellectual capacity humans develop during evolution the more difficulty they get to think rationally. They tend to develop magical religions which were not there in the first place. Then, higher order derivatives of sexual culture steering society to earthly or parallel reincarnation are pure nonsense. 

So, if humans with their extreme tricky brain do not learn to think rationally they will mix magical thinking with rationality. That's what we see in our world of today where people almost need a beta education TO LEARN THINKING RATIONALLY. But this might have been normal with smaller brains.

So, the conclusion is we must consider a possibly important difference between small and large brains. Small brains as from Homo naledi might think more rationally than large brains of Homo sapiens. Large brains possibly are natural anomalies caused by eating too much meat and seafood so that brains exploded like cauliflower. Modern brains are like super sport cars in which one must learn to drive.

This all means something very important: the increase in rational thinking in Hominins possibly does not depend on the content of the brain in cc in the first place BUT ON ITS DESIGN. So, it might be Homo naledi had already the layout of our Homo sapiens brain but without the sick cauliflower expansion. 

Is this the sound barrier of magical madness?

Though the invention of the soul is a masterpiece of Hominin thinking it is also one of mankind's greatest fallacies. It is a fantasized extra degree of freedom in thinking. Not verifiable. It simply does not exist. Mankind is fooling itself. You need not agree 😊.

The brains of Homo naledi

Homo naledi must have been very intelligent. We know, chimps can be very clever too, but Homo naledi with his orange-seized brains must have had already quite different cerebral convolutions.

It’s not the size of your brain, it’s how you organise it. The most recently discovered species of early human had a skull only slightly larger than a chimpanzee’s, but its brain looked surprisingly like our own – particularly in an area of the frontal lobe with links to language.

This could back suggestions that these mysterious early humans showed advanced behaviours, such as teamwork and burial, even though we still don’t know exactly when they lived.

Burial rites

It had a peculiar mix of anatomical features, which is part of what makes it hard to tell when the species lived. But what really set tongues wagging was the suggestion by Berger and his colleagues that H. naledi had deliberately disposed of its dead in this deep, dark, difficult-to-reach cave chamber full of remains.

Such an endeavour probably required emotional sophistication, not to mention teamwork, to carry out the task, but H. naledi’s skull was less than half the size of our own. Could its tiny brain have powered such advanced behaviour?

Tiny human

What excites the team most is a region on the side of H. naledi’s frontal lobe called Brodmann area 45, part of Broca’s area, which in modern humans has links to speech production. In this part of our brains, the pattern of gyri and sulci is very different from that seen in chimpanzees. H. naledi seems to have had our pattern, even though as an adult its BA45 was not much larger than that of a chimpanzee. 

“You look at the naledi cast and you think – holy crap this is just a tiny human,” says Hawks.

Team member Shawn Hurst of Indiana University in Bloomington discussed the findings at a meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in New Orleans last week. “I would think the implication is that [H. naledi] was moving strongly towards enhanced communication,” he says.
Hurst adds that there is also evidence for a general expansion of the bottom surface of the frontal lobes – a region associated with higher emotions like empathy. Together, these observations might help to explain why groups of the small-brained hominin could have become interested in careful disposal of their dead, and how they could work together to transport bodies through the narrow and pitch-black cave system that led to the burial chamber.

The Lunate Sulcus by Ralph Holloway

Ralph Holloway is an endocast specialist who studies the inside skull to determine brain development of hominins. He also investigated the skull of Salam (3.3 Ma; 400cc; Ethiopia) and discovered the three years old child's brain was already rewired and different from chimps. The lunate sulcus marking vision structures had moved back on the skull making place for a larger neo cortex. So Salam was already more intelligent than chimps with 400cc brains:


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