Wednesday, 11 January 2017

(134) Human migration

Basic Dimension 

Number Archive

Above we see the second dispersal out of Africa.

A second dispersal took place via the so-called Southern Route, either before[28] or after[11][12] the Toba event, which happened between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago.[28]This dispersal followed the southern coastline of Asia, crossing about 250 kilometres (155 mi) of sea, and colonized Australia by around 50,000 years ago. According to this theory, Europe was populated either by a migration out of India, which was repopulated from southeast Asia after the Toba-event (pre-Toba hypothesis), or by an early offshoot which settled the Near East and Europe (post-Toba hypothesis).[11][12]

[N.B. Their are a number of competing theories around the timeline of migration out of Africa.] 

Homo sapiens (200 ka; 1400cc)

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens), which proposes a single area of origin for modern humans. According to this model, modern humans evolved in Africa and started to disperse through the world roughly 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. Recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa was cited as the scientific consensus as of the mid-2000s.[1][2]

The major competing hypothesis of "recent single origin" has been the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe.[3][4]

In the 2010s, the discovery of evidence of archaic admixture of modern humans outside of Africa with Neanderthals and Denisovans has complicated the picture.[5]As of 2011, it appears likely that there were two waves of migration out of Africa, the first taking place between 130,000–115,000 years ago via northern Africa,[6][7][8][9]which appears to have mostly died out or retreated (although there is some evidence of a presence of modern humans in China about 80,000 years ago),[10] and a second via the so-called Southern Route, following the southern coastline of Asia, which led to the lasting colonization of Eurasia and Australia by around 50,000 years ago. Europe was populated by an early offshoot which settled the Near East and Europe (post-Toba hypothesis).[11][12]

Dating: pre-or post-Toba

The dating of the Southern Dispersal is a matter of dispute.[28] It may have happened either pre- or post-Toba, a catastrophic volcanic eruption that took place between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba. Stone tools discovered below the layers of ash disposed in India may point to a pre-Toba dispersal, but the exact source of these tools is disputed.[28]

Map of the migration of modern humans out of Africa, based on mitochondrial DNA. Colored rings indicate thousand years before present.


Assumption 278: About 40.000 years ago Homo sapiens (mtDNA = L3N) returned from the Arabian Peninsula and Europe to North Africa, where they developed as Berbers or Imazighen.


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